Agreements on goals, roles, inputs, outputs and outcomes can be structured through a results-based management approach

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Strengthening civil-state interactions

Identifying the civic organisations to work with

Working with communities
Supporting information exchange

Other skills
Checking our progress

Interactive exercise

This is best carried out with key primary and secondary stakeholders, in a participatory manner.

The state has a number of tools at its disposal to ensure that activities by non-state actors are consistent with public health priorities and goals. National priorities and essential public health measures can be built into social contracts through:

  • legal mandates
  • tax incentives
  • subsidies and grants for prioritized areas
  • matching grants

and by:

  • directing complementary state resources towards particular outcomes
  • setting up performance contracts
  • building in budget rewards and penalties for particular outputs.

The state may also use its powers of supervision and inspection to monitor public health practice and standards of such work.

The mix of incentive (rather than punitive) measures and the extent of participation of stakeholders in forging such state measures will influence the response to and compliance with these measures.