and Rifkin, 1996
Five factors are used in the
Rifkin diagram as dimensions along which participation can be
1. Needs assessment
4. Resource mobilization
A rating is used to measure
the level of participation, from a continuum of wide (5) to narrow
(1) participation. Criteria are set for the ranking in each dimension.
These criteria are defined before processes commence according
to desired social outcomes. They cover the extent to which communities
are planning, implementing and evaluating within the factor.
An assessment team uses an interview schedule to interview key
informants on the defined criteria. The findings from the interviews
are subject to the collective judgement of the assessment team,
and the ranking and mark placed on the diagram through consensus
from the assessment team. The diagram can be used to assess participation
before and after interventions to evaluate change, to show differences
between groups and to carry out pre-programme assessment to stimulate
planning. The findings are used to stimulate structured discussion
of conclusions and areas for action.