For example, one area of procedural
justice relates to how different sources of information and evidence
are shared and used in policy making.
To start with, health systems
themselves need to involve stakeholders more systematically in
obtaining and publishing evidence to be used in decision-making.
This is positive in itself. For example, the Tanzania Essential
Health Interventions Project has strengthened the use of evidence
from health systems (disease burden, cost effectiveness of available
interventions). As a result, the health system has been able
to reflect community preferences and priorities more transparently
& Kasale, 2000).
Evidence on public opinion
can also be included in health planning. Opinion surveys, anonymous
postal surveys, focus groups and citizens' juries can all act
in parallel to the budgeting or decision-making process, to ensure
that decisions are in line with public values. However, community
preferences are still weakly integrated with health system information;
there is plenty of room for innovation. The use of information
as a tool for civic involvement is discussed further in the next