They can also use other remedies outside the health system

Where civil actors do not trust remedies within health systems, they may pursue redress for health related grievances outside the health systems.

In India, the Supreme Court in 1995 decided in favour of a citizens' action to use the Consumer Protection Act to defend their rights as patients against medical malpractice, when the state did not adequately address patient concerns (Mogedal & Hodne Steen, 1995).

Such legal remedies are generally more accessible to affluent groups, leaving poorer ones inadequately protected or served. Hence broader civil society watchdog roles have wider benefit, particularly where they are institutionalized in national health boards or councils or linked with a state facility such as an ombudsman.


site map
forward and back

Enhancing civil society

Priority health problems

Facilitating roles
Interactive exercise

Policy accountability

Equity in health
Responding to communities
The potential for success
Interactive exercise